Senate Memorial Tributes - "H, I, J"

JOHN (JACK) E. HALLIDAY (1911-2001)

Dr. Halliday began his career at UBC in 1949 and retired in 1977. Prior to coming to UBC, he served his apprenticeship in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, his hometown. Jack completed the two-year diploma course in 1936 and then worked as a pharmacist with MacBean & Marshall Pharmacy in Saskatoon. In 1942 he joined the RCAF in the radar division and served overseas with the Air Force. He joined the Faculty seven years later following the completion of a Masters degree in Pharmacology at Purdue University and took leave in June 1951 for a period of 15 months to pursue a Ph.D. degree at the University of Washington. He returned to UBC to resume his role as a member of Faculty and continued to enjoy a fruitful academic career attaining the rank of Full Professor of Pharmacology. Dr. Halliday made significant contributions to the academic life of the Faculty as a very well respected teacher and successful researcher. His dedication to the students was evident throughout his career and he will be remembered well for his sense of humor and being a master of the pun! He also participated in the development of a continuing education program for the Faculty and was active with the B.C. Pharmacy Association, now the College of Pharmacists of B.C., serving at one stage as Chairman of their Board of Examiners and on a number of their committees.

Dr. Halliday was a member of The UBC Senate from 1965-1966, representing the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences. He became a Professor Emeritus in 1977 and held post-retirement positions in the faculty through 1978. He was a dedicated colleague and maintained a strong commitment and dedication to the Faculty throughout all his years of service and long retirement.


Members of Senate of the University of British Columbia record their sorrow in the death of Chancellor Emeritus, The Honourable Eric Werge Hamber, and their deep appreciation of his services to the cause of higher education in British Columbia.

His close association with the University began in 1936 with his appointment as a member of the Board of Governors, prior to his assuming the duties of Lieutenant-Governor. He was therefore no stranger to the work of university administration when unanimously elected Chancellor eight years later.

Throughout his period of office, 1944-1951, Chancellor Hamber entered with enthusiasm into the University's task of finding solutions to the many new and unprecedented problems created by rapid post-war expansion. His wise counsels were a vital element in the Achievements of those years.

Among his most important contributions was the part he played in effecting closer relations between business leaders and the University coninanity. His keen interest in the University and its affairs continued until his death.

He and Mrs. Hamber set a fine example in the encouragement of scholarship by establishing the Hamber Endowment Fund for Medical Research. He also donated and endowed the Hamber Gold Medal and Prize in the Faculty of Medicine and founded annual scholarships for medical and nursing students. His lifelong interest in amateur sport is reflected by his donation of the Hamber Trophy for InterUniversity Ice Hockey.

Members of Senate will long remember with feelings of gratitude and pride the years of Dr. Hamber's Chancellorship, -- his many gracious and generous acts, his confident spirit and the untiring devotion of his leadership.


This university's reputation as an institution of high purpose, intense investigation and thorough scholarship has consistently attracted the finest academics and administrators to our campus. Such a man was Dr. Kenneth Hare, UBC's fifth president. Dr. Hare died in September of this year.

Kenneth Hare was born in England in 1919 and received his Bachelor of Science degree in 1939 from the University of London. After serving in the British Air Ministry as a meteorologist during the Second World War, he took a position at McGill as a geography professor. He earned his doctorate in Geography at the University of Montreal as an arctic climatologist.

As a scientist, Dr. Hare examined the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide in climate change, and became a strong advocate for nuclear power as an alternative to burning fossil fuels. He was well-known internationally for his work in biogeography and climatology and was recognized by the Canadian Meteorological Society, the Royal Geographical Society and the World Meteorological Organization. His book, The Restless Atmosphere, is considered a standard textbook on climatology. He also served as commissioner of the Ontario Nuclear Safety Review, and headed major inquiries into environmental issues such as lead contamination, nuclear winter, air pollution and the disposal of nuclear waste.

He became president of UBC in 1967 during a time of student unrest, rising enrollment and financial restraint. He is described by colleagues as a gentle, studious man, who showed serious concern both for the condition of the university and the demands of students. His concern is shown clearly in his President's Report for the 1967-68 academic year, which also outlines his plan for changing university governance to meet the needs of the time. He resigned in early 1969, just 18 months after his appointment, stating that he found the strains of conflict impossible to bear for a man of his temperament. His legacy to the university is, however, quite significant. He began the process of involving students in university governance, and made the physical and financial needs of the university the very top priorities of subsequent administrations.

Dr. Hare's career as an administrator included service as Master of Birkbeck College at the University of London, 19 years on the faculty of McGill University, where he served as dean of arts and sciences, and at the University of Toronto where he was Provost of Trinity College and Director of the Institute for Environmental Studies. He was also chancellor of Trent University from 1988 to 1995.

He was a Companion of the Order of Canada and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and was awarded honorary degrees by 11 universities.

The Board of Governors and the Senate of the University of British Columbia extend their deepest sympathy to Dr. Hare's family.


Neal Harlow, U.B.C.'s fourth University Librarian, died at his home in Los Angeles on July 13, 2000, at the age of 92.

He was born in 1908 in Columbus, Indiana, and attended schools in Shelby, Nebraska, Pueblo, Colorado and Stockton, California. He attended California State University in Fresno, Santa Ana Junior College and the University of California at Los Angeles, from which he graduated in 1932 with a B.A. in Education. A year later he earned a graduate Certificate in Librarianship from the University of California at Berkeley. He pursued further studies while working and completed requirements for an M.A. from the University of California in 1949.

In 1934 he began his professional career as a junior librarian in the Bancroft Library at Berkeley, and there developed a life-long interest in the early history and cartography of California. Subsequently he worked as a senior librarian at the California State Library in Sacramento before returning to the University of California at Los Angeles in 1945 as the head of its Gifts and Exchanges Division. In 1947 he was given the assignment of establishing and directing that University's first Special Collections Division. In 1950 he was promoted to Assistant University Librarian with particular responsibility for planning the expansion of library buildings on the campus. It was also in 1950 that his first book was published: The Maps of San Francisco Bay from the Spanish Discovery to the American Occupation.

He was appointed University Librarian at U.B.C. from August 1, 1951, succeeding Leslie W. Dunlap (July 1949 - January 1951). President Norman A. Mackenzie accurately described Harlow as Ever affable, quick of wit, imaginative and hard working. Harlow immediately became active simultaneously on many fronts. Feeling that the role of the Library in the University needed definition, he drew up a Senate Policy on the University Library, which was approved by Senate on February 13, 1952. He followed this with a proposal for new terms of reference for the Senate Library Committee, and these were adopted on May 13, 1952.

His foremost priority was always the collections of the Library, and he strove to increase the acquisitions budget both from the University's resources, but also from grants and donations from foundations and individuals. He established close relationships with the library's benefactors through an organization he created: the Friends of U.B.C. Library. Most prominent among the Friends were Walter Koerner and H.R. MacMillan, who could always be counted upon for special assistance. For example it was through the Friends that Koerner made it possible for the Library to acquire two notable collections: the Thomas Murray Collection (1958) of Canadiana, and the P'u Pan Collection (1959).

Every year under Harlow's administration the rate of acquisition increased, and he predicted correctly that the size of the collection would double in a decade. He was therefore also safe in predicting the urgent need for the expansion of the Library by the addition of a south wing. An initial gift from Walter Koerner led to further grants from the Canada Council and the Province of B.C. Planning for the addition commenced in 1957, and the building was opened in the fall of 1960.

The new Walter Koerner Wing allowed Harlow to follow through on another of his initiatives, the improvement of reference services. Where there had been a single Reference Division, the Library now offered specialized Divisions for the Humanities, Social Sciences, Fine Arts, Science, and Special Collections. A separate College Library catering to students in their first two undergraduate years - the precursor of the later Sedgewick Undergraduate Library - was established. The Library also contained in its Biomedical Library the core of the future Woodward Library.

Harlow also sought to improve the staffing situation of the Library, which was experiencing unacceptable rates of turnover. Salaries were improved at the same time as the establishment was increased to deal with the expansion of collections and services. At this time there was a general shortage of trained librarians in Western Canada, and the only two English-language schools in Canada were in the East. Harlow was instrumental in establishing in April 1956 a joint committee of the University, the B.C. Public Library Commission, and the British Columbia Library Association to study the situation and make recommendations. The committee's report in March 1957, recommending the establishment of a library school at U.B.C. within three years, was ushered through Senate, the Board and the concerned Faculties. The School of Librarianship was launched in the fall of 1961.

Throughout his years at U.B.C. he was active in library and community organizations in both Canada and the U.S. He was the Secretary of the Projects Committee of the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation for five years. He served on the Board of the Pacific Northwest Bibliographical Centre from 1954 to 1957; was a member of the National Research Council's Advisory Board on Scientific and Technical Information from 1958 to 1961; and was a member of many library associations, such as the American Library Association, the Pacific Northwest Library Association, the British Columbia Library Association, and the Bibliographical Society of Canada. Never a passive joiner, he served on the Executive Board of the American Library Association and on its Committee on Accreditation from 1959 to 1963. He was the President of the Canadian Library Association in 1960/61 in which capacity he led a delegation to the Minister for Public Works, lobbying for the construction of a new building for the National Library of Canada. In his Presidential Year he also launched an Inquiry Into the State of Library Service in Canada, a national self-study which resulted in an overall assessment of Canadian libraries of all types at the beginning of the sixties.

Just at the point that so many of his initiatives had come to fruition, Harlow surprised his colleagues by resigning on June 30, 1961 to take up a new career as a library educator, accepting an appointment as the Dean of the Graduate School of Library Service, Rutgers University. He retired on June 30, 1969.

Returning to Los Angeles, he renewed his research into early California history, and produced in addition to many articles a number of books: Maps and Surveys of the Pueblo Lands of Los Angeles (1976); The City of Angels and the City of Saints (1978); California Conquered: War and Peace on the Pacific, 1846-1850 (1982); Maps of the Pueblo Lands of San Diego, 1601- 1874 (1987).

A proponent of fine printing and bookmaking, Harlow was a long time member of the Book Club of California, the Rounce & Coffin Club and the Zamorano Club. He brought his enthusiasm for the printer's craft to Vancouver, and while serving on the President's Committee on University Publications was influential in improving the design of books and pamphlets bearing U.B.C.'s imprint, utilizing and encouraging the talents of local typographers. He was among the first to advocate the founding of a true university press.

He was predeceased by his wife Marian in 1989, and is survived by his sister Mary and two daughters, Diane and Nora.

Basil Stuart-Stubbs
August 2000


Mr. J.N. Harvey had been the Senate representative of the Lieutenant Governor-in-Council from 1931 until the time of his death on December 6, 1942. During those years he was a faithful Attendant of the Senate Meetings, and he made the interests of this institution a major concern of his thought. The Senate records its high appreciation of his public spirit and his devotion to the University.


Dennis McNeice Healy was born in Bethune, Saskatchewan in 1911. He was graduated from the University of Alberta in 1931 and later received his Licence es lettres and Doctorat from the University of Paris.

His academic career began in 1935 with his appointment as Instructor, and later Professor and Head of the Department of French at the University of Alberta. However, he interrupted his career to serve with distinction in the Canadian Army intelligence service during the Second World War. He was awarded the Order of the British Empire in recognition of outstanding service behind enemy lines.

After teaching at the University of Long Island, Dennis Healy accepted the position of Professor and Head of the Department of Romance Studies at this University in 1962. After the untimely death of Kaspar Naegele, Dr. Healy was appointed Dean of the Faculty of Arts. He resigned this position in 1968 to become Vice-President at York University. Dennis Healy was a member of the Senate from 1965 to 1968.

Dr. Healy's distinguished career culminated later by his appointment to the position of Principal of Bishops University.

Dennis Healy was, above all, a teacher. He loved the language and the literature of his discipline. He excelled in the classroom, sharing with his students a deep respect for excellence as a constant goal. To his colleagues he was a loyal friend, an effective administrator and a valued scholar.

To his wife, Eileen, and his family, the Senate of this University extends its deepest sympathy.


William Lancelot Holland laid the foundations for the study of Asia at the University of British Columbia. He founded the Department of Asian Studies at UBC in 1961 and his leadership and dedication established UBC as a leading centre for research on Asia. The foundation built during his tenure has led to a wide recognition of the Department of Asian Studies as one of the finest of its kind in North America.

He was the chief architect and coordinator of the research program for the Institute of Pacific Relations, initiating ground-breaking studies in economics, social and political history. In the difficult years of the depression and war, he established a tradition of independent, critical scholarship on current issues in Asia. The Institute's publications constituted the major resource when Washington, at the outbreak of World War II, sought information on contemporary East Asia.

Dr. Holland developed teaching and research at UBC, while carrying the responsibility as editor of Pacific Affairs, the leading journal on contemporary Asia. At the Department of Asian Studies, he attracted internationally distinguished Asian scholars as teachers, researchers and visiting lecturers.

Dr. Holland served the UBC Senate as a representative of the Joint Faculties from 1967 to 1969 and in 1989, was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws from the University. In 2003, he established the William L. Holland Prize for the best article published each year in Pacific Affairs.

Hailed as "Canada's Dean of Asian Studies," Dr. Holland influenced a generation of Canadian students. His qualities of integrity, respect and generosity won Bill Holland the affection and admiration of the University community and assure an affectionate place in the memories of his colleagues, students and all those who have been fortunate beneficiaries of his ethical, intellectual and administrative legacies.


Major Henry Cuthbert Holmes, who died in May, 1968, at the age of seventy-seven, lived a full and active life. A native of Victoria, B.C. he was educated at the Royal Naval School, England, at Victoria College, Canada, and Balliol College, Oxford. He served with distinction in the First World War, after which he settled down in Victoria where he was to become a great force in civic and provincial affairs. His service to his city resulted in his being made Freeman of the City of Victoria in 1968. A co-founder of Brentwood College, he was a Governor from 1923 to 1948. He worked continuously for the University of Victoria and was Chairman of the University's Extension Association. His interest in education was wide, as is shown by his Chairmanship of the Fairbridge Farm Schools Committee in 1935. He was active in a score of civic clubs and enterprises. His connection with the University of British Columbia goes back many years. He first joined the Senate for a six-year term in 1933; he returned in 1946 and remained a member of that body until 1955. Finally, he was appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council in 1958 and it was not until 1965 that he resigned. He was a faithful member of Senate with a keen interest in the academic wellbeing of the University and, indeed, of education throughout the province, He leaves three sons and two daughters. This University will miss him as will our sister institution in Victoria.

BETTY HOWARD (1923-2004)

Dr. Betty Howard served Senate as a Representative of the Joint Faculties from 1972 to 1975.

Dr. Howard retired from UBC in 1988 as an Assistant Professor Emerita of Physics and Astronomy. Her career at UBC began in 1953 when she was hired as a sessional lecturer in the Department of Physics and Astronomy (then Physics); and she was appointed Assistant Professor in 1965.

Prior to joining UBC, Dr. Howard held the Canadian Ellis Fellowship from the International Federation of University Women in Leiden, Holland. Dr, Howard was an officer of the Canadian Association of Physicists, the American Association of Physics Teachers and the B.C. Science and Technology Centre. In addition to serving on the UBC Senate, Dr, Howard was involved for many years with timetable organization and registration of first year Science students.

R. GRANT INGRAM (1945-2007)

Dr. Grant Ingram came to the University of British Columbia in 1997 as the founding Principal of St. John's College. He also served as Associate Dean (Strategic Planning and Research) and Dean pro tem. in the Faculty of Science and most recently, as the Principal for the College for Interdisciplinary Studies. Before joining the UBC community, he had been Chair of the Institute of Oceanography and Professor in the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at McGill University. He obtained his PhD in the joint program of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from McGill.

Dr. Ingram was named 2006 Fellow of the Oceanography Society for "insightful studies of physical processes and physical/biological coupling in extreme polar regions and for untiring service to the oceanographic community." In the same year, he was also distinguished as a Fellow of the Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society for his "leadership in linking physical and biological oceanography, and his wide-ranging service and research contributions to Arctic oceanography." His scholarly expertise was especially germane, given the current international focus on climate change.

Dr. Ingram enriched the lives of many UBC students and was an outstanding teacher and mentor. His scholarly contributions to the world of earth and ocean sciences, along with truly remarkable and selfless administrative services to the university are accomplishments that bring tremendous pride to all those who have known him.


Dr. Sydney Israels, professor of Paediatrics in the Faculty of Medicine and one of Canada's best-known practising paediatricians, died suddenly on July 17, 1978.

A native of Saskatchewan, Dr. Israels was educated at the University of Saskatchewan, where he received the degree of Bachelor of Science in 1936, Summa Cum Laude, and the University of Manitoba, where he was awarded his medical degree in 1939. On graduation he won the University Gold Medal in Medicine and the Chown Prize and Medal in Surgery. He interned at the Winnipeg General Hospital, and served as a medical officer in the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II.

Dr. Israels was named a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1943 and a Fellow of the American College of Physicians in 1952. He was also a Fellow of the American Academy of Paediatrics.

At the time of his appointment to U.B.C., Dr. Israels was director of clinical investigation and research at the Winnipeg Children's Hospital. In 1964 he became Head of Paediatrics at both the University and the Vancouver General Hospital, posts which he held until 1977. He attracted top academics to his department, and fostered an active teaching and research program. In addition to heavy administrative duties, he himself carried on an active personal research program in the field of metabolic diseases. He was also active in population paediatrics.

He served on the University Senate as a representative of the Faculty of Medicine from 1969 to 1972.

Dr. Israels was largely responsible for the union of the Children's Hospital on 59th Avenue and the Health Centre at the Vancouver General Hospital. He fought vigorously and relentlessly for improved facilities for treating sick children. In addition, he was joint founder with Dr. Roger Tonkin of the Reach Community Clinic on Commercial Drive designed to provide health services for adults as well as children and give practical training for medical students.

Dr. Israels was an outspoken critic of the slow progress in obtaining better paediatric facilities in Vancouver. His dream was realized last year during the ground-breaking ceremonies for the new Children's Hospital on the Shaughnessy Hospital site. His death came at a meeting held to discuss better facilities.

His work was more than a profession to him, it was a calling; and he served it well. It is to be regretted that he had too little opportunity to enjoy the fruits of his labour.

To his wife, Rita, and his daughters, Carla Levinson and Sherri Israels; to his brothers, Dr. Max Israels and Dr. Lyonel Israels and sister, Sylvia Markel; and to other members of his family, Senate expresses its deepest sympathy.


He had just reached the traditional three score and ten years, but none of us expected that Ralph James would leave us so soon. His unexpected death at his home on Salt Spring Island on May 19, 1979, shocked and saddened us all greatly.

In 1973, Ralph James retired as Head of the Mathematics Department at UBC after holding that position for 25 years, one year before his official retirement as Professor of Mathematics, to co-ordinate activities for the 1974 International Mathematics Congress held in Vancouver. He continued to teach at UBC for two further years.

Born in Liverpool, England, he spent most of his life in Vancouver. He graduated from UBC with first class honours in Mathematics. He remained for a Master's degree and then went to the University of Chicago, where he completed his Ph.D under Leonard Eugene Dickson.

Awarded a two-year National Research Council (U.S.) Postdoctoral Fellowship, he spent one year at Cal Tech with E. T. Bell and one year at Cambridge with G. H. Hardy. He taught for five years at the University of California at Berkeley, after which he accepted an invitation to join the Faculty of the University of Saskatchewan. He became Professor and Head in 1939 at the age of 30 years.

In 1943 Dean Daniel Buchanan invited Ralph James to UBC as Professor of Mathematics. In the same year he was elected a Fellow of The Royal Society of Canada. He assumed the Headship of the UBC Mathematics Department in 1948. During the next 25 years, under his distinguished leadership, the Department grew not only in numbers but in quality and reputation.

Ralph left his mark indelibly on the mathematical scene in British Columbia. He took a very active part in the revision of the school curriculum and was made an Honorary Member of the B.C. Teachers' Federation and Honorary President of the B.C. Association of Mathematics Teachers. He was the founding president of the B.C. Committee on the Undergraduate Programme in Mathematics.

From 1957 to 1962 he was Editor-in-Chief of the American Mathematical Monthly, and was a staunch supporter of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, serving as its President from 1961 to 1963. For many years he was a member of the Editorial Board of the Canadian Journal of Mathematics. He was instrumental in the formation of an Institute of Applied Mathematics and Statistics at UBC.

In the classroom, he was a dedicated and devoted teacher, constantly searching for novel and significant improvements in the dialogue which occurs between teacher and student. He was concerned about the learning of every one of his students; he was ever on the alert for the little fire of genius that appeared from time to time in unsuspected ways.

Ralph James served his university very well in many capacities. He was on many important committees, and he was a member of Senate for 13 consecutive years. He represented the Faculty of Graduate Studies from 1950 to 1957, and the Faculty of Arts and Sciences from 1957 to 1963.

He was well known in Faculty meetings where he was an articulate and forceful debater, a telling critic, and an aggressive proponent of his well thought-out views and principles. Underneath the facade, however, he was a humane and human being of gentleness, compassion, sensitivity, intelligence and integrity.

Senate extends to his wife, Rose, and to the other members of his family its deepest sympathy.


The Senate records its deep sense of loss in the death of Miss Anna B. Jamieson, at the age of eighty-two, after nearly half a century of public service in the City of Vancouver. As a teacher in public and in high school and a vice-principal; as a member of the Vancouver Board of School Trustees and as its Chairman; as a member for thirty years of the Public Library Board; she left the impress of her character on the educational policies of this community. She was a member of this Senate and of the Board of Governors of this University, from which in 1942 she received the degree of LL.D.

Her gifts as a teacher were remarkable: she instilled a love of reading, a feeling for the colour and texture of words, a sense of the beauty of literary forms. Her career of public service was sustained and unbroken. Her crusading spirit, her purposeful benevolence, her interest in humane studies and civic affairs, her desire for international harmony - these were the moving principles of her life. She always put human values first; her enthusiasms were tempered with realism and with humour.

Her selfless labours will remain an inspiration and an example to others so long as her memory endures.


Francis Henry Johnson, a distinguished scholar, a former member of Senate and a much respected colleague died on August 23, 1982. Dr. Johnson was born on April 5, 1908 in London, Ontario. After working as a B.C. elementary teacher and assistant principal at Douglas Road and Windsor Street Schools in Burnaby, 1926-1930, he took his B.A., graduating as 1932 Gold Medalist in Honours History at UBC. In May, 1935, during a five year association as teacher at Kamloops Junior-Senior High School, he presented his UBC M.A. thesis.

For five years following 1940, he served in the armed forces. In 1946 he registered at the University of Toronto, taking his B.Paed. degree with Honours in 1947, and while on leave from overlapping appointments as Instructor at the Victoria Normal School, 1948-1953, and Director of the B.C. Provincial Summer School of Education, 1951-1955, he completed his D.Paed., also at Toronto.

As Coordinator of Teacher Education for the B.C. Department of Education, 1954-1956, one of his central tasks was to study the proposal that all teachers should be trained at the university.

Dr. Johnson was appointed in 1956 as Professor of the History of Education and Director of Elementary Teacher Education, wherein he played a major role reorganizing the existing UBC School (formerly Department) of Education.

As a member of Senate from 1957-1966, he made valuable contributions to the university as a whole. As President of the B.C. Historical Association, 1960-1961, and of the Canadian Association of Professors of Education, 1964-1965, he achieved provincial recognition as an historian and national esteem as a teacher educator. Most importantly, as Director of Elementary Teacher Education for sixteen years, F. Henry Johnson was primarily responsible for developing the curriculum for preservice elementary teachers.

Dr. Johnson's publications ranged from short accounts of B.C. fur trading days to comprehensive history and biography. His History of Public Education in British Columbia published in 1964 was the first book on the subject and as a single volume remains to be superseded.

The Canadian History of Education Association nominated F. Henry Johnson to Honorary Life Membership. "Generations of students and faculty members," it announced in 1982, "will recall Dr. Johnson's extraordinary ability to maintain a heavy writing and research schedule through thick and thin. Dr. Johnson's impact as architect and administrator of British Columbia teacher education has been great; moreover, he has helped to place the field of history of education on a firm footing in Canada as a whole."

In addition to his qualities as teacher, administrator, and scholar, people who worked with Dr. Johnson also discovered in him a colleague of exceptional humanity.

To his wife Eileen Beth, his daughter Nancy and son David, and to all members of the family, Senate extends its deepest sympathy.

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